Design Perceptron to Learn AND, OR and XOR Logic Gates

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We then multiply our inputs times these random starting weights. This plot code is a bit more complex than the previous code samples but gives an extremely helpful insight into the workings of the neural network decision process for XOR. A L-Layers XOR Neural Network using only Python and Numpy that learns to predict the XOR logic gates.


Apart from the input and output layers, MLP( short form of Multi-layer perceptron) has hidden layers in between the input and output layers. These hidden layers help in learning the complex patterns in our data points. So among the various logical operations, XOR logical operation is one such problem wherein linear separability of data points is not possible using single neurons or perceptrons. This blog is intended to familiarize you with the crux of neural networks and show how neurons work. The choice of parameters like the number of layers, neurons per layer, activation function, loss function, optimization algorithm, and epochs can be a game changer. And with the support of python libraries like TensorFlow, Keras, and PyTorch, deciding these parameters becomes easier and can be done in a few lines of code.

Weights and Biases

Some algorithms of machine learning like Regression, Cluster, Deep Learning, and much more. Neural nets used in production or research are never this simple, but they almost always build on the basics outlined here. Hopefully, this post gave you some idea on how to build and train perceptrons and vanilla networks.

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This process is repeated until the predicted_output converges to the It is easier to repeat this process a certain number of times (iterations/epochs) rather than setting a threshold for how much convergence should be expected. It’s always a good idea to experiment with different network configurations before you settle on the best one or give up altogether. Andrew Ng, the former head and co-founder of Google Brain questioned the defensibility of the data moat. @Emil So, if the weights are very small, you are saying that it will never converge? There was a problem preparing your codespace, please try again.

Understanding Backpropagation Algorithm

So after personal readings, I finally understood how to go about it, which is the reason for this medium post. Similarly, for the case, the value of W0 will be -3 and that of W1 can be +2. Remember you can take any values of the weights W0, W1, and W2 as long as the inequality is preserved. Polaris000/BlogCode/xorperceptron.ipynb The sample code from this post can be found here. And that both functions are being passed the same input .


In the forward pass, we apply the wX + b relation multiple times, and applying a sigmoid function after each call. Adding input nodes — Image by Author using draw.ioFinally, we need an AND gate, which we’ll train just we have been. If not, we reset our counter, update our weights and continue the algorithm. However, is it fair to assign different error values for the same amount of error? For example, the absolute difference between -1 and 0 & 1 and 0 is the same, however the above formula would sway things negatively for the outcome that predicted -1.

XOR gate

Decide the number of xor neural network layers and nodes present in them. After compiling the model, it’s time to fit the training data with an epoch value of 1000. After training the model, we will calculate the accuracy score and print the predicted output on the test data. Whereas, to separate data points of XOR, we need two linear lines or can add a new dimension and then separate them using a plane. Multi-layer Perceptron will work better in this case.

There are large regions of the input space which are mapped to an extremely small range. In these regions of the input space, even a large change will produce a small change in the output. If this was a real problem, we would save the weights and bias as these define the model.

  • It is easier to repeat this process a certain number of times (iterations/epochs) rather than setting a threshold for how much convergence should be expected.
  • Recalling some AS level maths, we can find the minima of a function by minimising the gradient .
  • Still, it is important to understand what is happening behind the scenes in a neural network.
  • As discussed, it’s applied to the output of each hidden layer node and the output node.
  • Visually what’s happening is the matrix multiplications are moving everybody sorta the same way .
  • There are no fixed rules on the number of hidden layers or the number of nodes in each layer of a network.

But this could also lead to something called overfitting — where a model achieves very high accuracies on the training data, but fails to generalize. This data is the same for each kind of logic gate, since they all take in two boolean variables as input. Change in the outer layer weightsNote that for Xo is nothing but the output from the hidden layer nodes. We’ll initialize our weights and expected outputs as per the truth table of XOR.

But there is a catch while the Perceptron learns the correct mapping for AND and OR. It fails to map the output for XOR because the data points are in a non-linear arrangement, and hence we need a model which can learn these complexities. Adding a hidden layer will help the Perceptron to learn that non-linearity. This is why the concept of multi-layer Perceptron came in.

The method of updating weights directly follows from derivation and the chain rule. What we now have is a model that mimics the XOR function.

Activation functions

A linear line can easily separate data points of OR and AND. The backpropagation algorithm (backprop.) is the key method by which we seqeuntially adjust the weights by backpropagating the errors from the final output neuron. Let’s see what happens when we use such learning algorithms. The images below show the evolution of the parameters values over training epochs. It doesn’t matter how many linear layers we stack, they’ll always be matrix in the end.

Still, it is important to understand what is happening behind the scenes in a neural network. Coding a simple neural network from scratch acts as a Proof of Concept in this regard and further strengthens our understanding of neural networks. The overall components of an MLP like input and output nodes, activation function and weights and biases are the same as those we just discussed in a perceptron. M maps the internal representation to the output scalar.

A pretraining domain decomposition method using artificial neural … –

A pretraining domain decomposition method using artificial neural ….

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One potential decision boundary for our XOR data could look like this. Here, we cycle through the data indefinitely, keeping track of how many consecutive datapoints we correctly classified. If we manage to classify everything in one stretch, we terminate our algorithm.

In the later part of this blog, we will see how SLP fails in learning XOR properties and will implement MLP for it. Logic gates are the basic building blocks of digital circuits. They decide which set of input signals will trigger the circuit using boolean operations.

”, then “1” means “the output of the first neuron”. The second subscript of the weight means “what input will multiply this weight? Then “1” means “this weight is going to multiply the first input” and “2” means “this weight is going to multiply the second input”. There are no fixed rules on the number of hidden layers or the number of nodes in each layer of a network.

Exploring ‘OR’, ‘XOR’,’AND’ gate in Neural Network?

All the previous images just shows the modifications occuring due to each mathematical operation . All points moved downward 1 unit (due to the -1 in \(\vec\)). Notice this representation space makes some points’ positions look different. While the red-ish one remained at the same place, the blue ended up at \(\).


Remember the linear activation function we used on the output node of our perceptron model? There are several more complex activation functions. You may have heard of the sigmoid and the tanh functions, which are some of the most popular non-linear activation functions. To train our perceptron, we must ensure that we correctly classify all of our train data. Note that this is different from how you would train a neural network, where you wouldn’t try and correctly classify your entire training data.

The linear separability of points

However, any number multiplied by 0 will give us 0, so let’s move on to the second input $0,1 \mapsto 1$. Like I said earlier, the random synaptic weight will most likely not give us the correct output the first try. So we need a way to adjust the synpatic weights until it starts producing accurate outputs and “learns” the trend. First, we’ll have to assign random weights to each synapse, just as a starting point.

Universal logic-in-memory cell enabling all basic Boolean algebra … –

Universal logic-in-memory cell enabling all basic Boolean algebra ….

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Therefore, the network gets stuck when trying to perform linear regression on a non-linear problem. Imagine f is a surface over the \(\vec\) plane, and its height equals the output. The surface must have height equalling 1 over the points \(\) and \(\) and 0 height at points \(\) and \(\). Following the development proposed by Ian Goodfellow et al, let’s use the mean squared error function for the sake of simplicity. When I started AI, I remember one of the first examples I watched working was MNIST(or CIFAR10, I don’t remember very well). Looking for online tutorials, this example appears over and over, so I suppose it is a common practice to start DL courses with such idea.

Real world problems require stochastic gradient descents which “jump about” as they descend giving them the ability to find the global minima given a long enough time. Two lines is all it would take to separate the True values from the False values in the XOR gate. Maths The level of maths is GCSE/AS level (upper-high school). You should be able to taken derivatives of exponential functions and be familiar with the chain-rule.

Code samples for building architechtures is included using keras. This repo also includes implementation of Logical functions AND, OR, XOR. Though the output generation process is a direct extension of that of the perceptron, updating weights isn’t so straightforward. Here’s where backpropagation comes into the picture. Hidden layers are those layers with nodes other than the input and output nodes. In any iteration — whether testing or training — these nodes are passed the input from our data.

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